**Disclaimer:** Most of the content below will be cited. If any sentence is not cited, I want to clarify that this article is only for knowledge purpose and I will not be earning any money from it.

**INSERTION-SORT**can take different amounts of time to sort two input sequences of the same size depending on how nearly sorted they already are.- In INSERTION-SORT, the
**best case**occurs if the array is already sorted.

T [Best Case]= O(n)

- If the array is in reverse sorted order i.e in decreasing order, INSERTION-SORT gives the
**worst case**results.

T [Worst Case]=θ(n²)

**Average…**

- Kruskal’s algorithm can also run on the disconnected graphs/ Connected Components
- Kruskal’s algorithm can be applied to the disconnected graphs to construct the minimum cost forest, but not MST because of multiple graphs
- (True/False) — Kruskal’s algorithm is best suited for the dense graphs than the prim’s algorithm | False

Prim’s algorithm outperforms the Kruskal’s algorithm in case of the dense graphs.

- Sorting all edges by their weights takes (O(|E| log |E|) time (done in Kruskal’s Algo) | True

- When using union-find data structures, using both path compression and rank-based heuristics is superior to (i.e., …

**GroupByKey (GBK)**: KV<K,V> → KV<K,Iterable<V>>**CoGroupByKey (CoGBK):**<KV<Id,CoGbkResult>> ; special map from tuple tag PCollection → Iterable<PCollection>

**3. Combine.perKey **:

**3.1**. **Serializable Function**<Iterable<T>,T>

**3.2** **CombineFn<InputT,AccumT,OutputT>**

**Flatten**: PCollectionList<T> is created, then merged**Partition**: returns a partition for (override) PCollectionList<T> with PartitionFn.**Distinct.create**: PCollection<KV<Type1,Type2>>**Count.perKey:**PCollection<KV<Type1,Long>>

**Binary Search in Arrays**: Arrays.binarySearch()

`binarySearch(T[] a, T key)`

binarySearch(T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, T key, Comparator<? super T> c)

binarySearch(T[] a, T key, Comparator<? super T> c)

**Binary Search in Collection :**Collections.binarysearch()

It works for objects Collections like **ArrayList** and **LinkedList**.

`binarySearch(List<? extends Comparable<? super T>> list, T key)`

binarySearch(List<? extends T> list, T key, Comparator<? super T> c)

References:

https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/collections-binarysearch-java-examples/

In Java, we broadly categorize Queues into the following two types

- Bounded Queues (all queues in
**java.util.concurrent**package) - Unbounded Queues (all queues in
**java.util**package)

Bounded Queues are queues which are bounded by capacity that means we need to provide the max size of the queue at the time of creation.

For example: ArrayBlockingQueue

`ArrayBlockingQueue`

is a bounded, blocking queue backed by an array

`BlockingQueue queue = new ArrayBlockingQueue(1024);`

queue.put("1");

Object object = queue.take();

Unbounded Queues are queues which are NOT bounded by capacity that means we should not provide the size of the queue.

For example LinkedList

**Class PriorityQueue<E>**

An unbounded priority queue based on a priority heap.

**References**

- https://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/api/java/util/Queue.html
- Bounded Queues and Unbounded Queues : https://www.journaldev.com/13244/java-queue

**Disclaimer:** Most of the content below will be cited. If any sentence is not cited, I want to clarify that this article is only for knowledge purpose and I will not be earning any money from it.

**Related Story : **Sorting Algorithms- Properties/Pros/Cons/Comparisons

It is relationship between variables in your program which holds true** just before the loop **is ever run (referred as **establishing** the invariant) and is true again at the **bottom of the loop** (referred as **maintaining** the invariant)

// the Loop Invariant must be true here

while ( TEST CONDITION ) {

// top of the loop…

Neutral things at MNC

- Some people create unnecessary dependencies in projects for their advantage
- Small work could be stretched to show them as big tasks in large MNCs by some people. A day’s work could be stretched to 3–5 days. It could also depend on the person not knowing the product.
- IT complaints to need to be made install freeware. Restriction to install tools for working — Information Security
- Business Analyst has a functional role. S/He comes at the beginning/end of SDLC
- Seat and computer allotment might take time(depends upon the company) [Study GRE/ Prepare for SOP/LOR]
- Useless timesheets( you…

In the 21st century, the startup world is a parallel universe that co-exists along with huge legacy companies. While startups innovate on a per-day basis to survive in the industry, large legacy company try harder to keep innovation at the core of the development process of their products.

Working in a startup might be one of the best learning experience, a newbie could ever have. But after a year or two, one might have the thirst to work on bigger products in larger teams. …

**Disclaimer:** Most of the content below will be cited. If any sentence is not cited, I want to clarify that this article is only for knowledge purpose and I will not be earning any money from it.

**Related Story : **Sorting Algorithms- Properties/Pros/Cons/Comparisons

[** <<<** *symbol => (grows much much slower than) ]*

Constant <<< Poly-logs <<< Polynomials <<< Factorial (n!) <<< Exponential (n^n)

**Example:**

1 < log(n) < n^(1/2) < n (i.e. n¹) < n log(n) ~ log(n!) < n² < n³ <<< 2^n < 3^n <<< n! <<< n^n

- A recurrence is an equation or inequality that describes…

**Disclaimer:** Most of the content below will be cited. If any sentence is not cited, I want to clarify that this article is only for knowledge purpose and I will not be earning any money from it.

**Related Story : **Sorting Algorithms — Basics

- Both the algorithms are used to traverse graphs and creates a tree for the path of its traversal.

- BFS is a vertex based algorithm, whereas DFS is an edge based algorithm
- BFS uses Queue data structure for its working while DFS uses Stack data structure for its working
- Structure of the constructed tree…

Full-Stack Data Engineer | System Design Enthusiast | ayusharora.me